1Ronald Knox, Enthusiasm (New York: Oxford University Press, 1950): p. 20.

2 Etty Hillesum, An Interrupted Life: The Diaries of Etty Hillesum, trans. Arno Pomerans (New York: Washington Square Press, 1985), quoted by Elizabeth O’Connor, “The Thinking Heart: A Feminine Spirituality from the Holocaust,” Sojourners (October 1985): p. 41.

3 Jane Bowers, “Music in Italian Convents” Helicon Nine 9 (Winter 1983): 71.

4 Augustine, “On the Gospel of John,” Tractate 12 in Nicene and Ante-Nicene Fathers 7 (New York: Charles Scribner’s Sons, 1908): 99 -107.

5 Teresa of Avila, Concepts of the Love of God, trans. E. Allison Peers in The Complete Works of Teresa of Avila 2 (New York: Sheed and Ward, 1950): pp. 357 -399.

6 Ibid., p.357.

7 Carole Slade, “Saint Teresa’s Meditaciones Sobre los Cantares: The Hermeneutics of Humility and Enjoyment” Religion and Literature 18.1 (Spring, 1986): 28.

8 Ibid., p. 34.

9 Elizabeth Teresa, “The Mystical Kiss and the Canticle of Canticles” American Benedictine Review 33 (March 1982): 302 -311. Cited by Slade.

10 Teresa of Avila, Concepts of the Love of God, p. 364.

11 Ibid., p. 399.

12 Ibid., p. 363.

13 Ibid., p. 363.

14 Ibid., p. 364.

15 Ibid., p. 393.

16 Ibid., p. 369.

17 Slade, p. 28.

18 Teresa of Avila, Concepts, p. 397.

19 Julian of Norwich, A Book of Showings to the Anchoress Julian of Norwich, ed. Edmund Colledge and James Walsh, 2 vols. (Toronto: Pontifical Institute of Medieval Studies, 1978). Reference is to the Long Text (LT) and the Short Text (ST) by chapter and page. Sometimes the variant from the Sloane text is used.

20 The Ancrene Riwle, trans. M.B. Salu (Notre Dame IN: University of Notre Dame Press, 1956): p. 97.

21 Ibid., p. 172 -173.

22 Ibid., p. 173.

23 Translated from the Sloane version: chap. 40 (LT).

24 See Elizabeth A. Johnson, C. S. J., “Jesus the Wisdom of God: A Biblical Basis for Non-Androcentric Christology” Ephemerides Theologicae Lovanienses 61.4 (December 1985): 261 -294.

25 Ancrene Riwle, p. 43.

26 Ibid., p. 21.

27 Ibid., p. 43.

28 Ibid., p. 45.

29 Ibid., p. 130.

30 Ibid., p. 180.

31 Ibid., p. 103.

32 Ibid., p. 168.

33 Ibid., p. 167 -168.

34 Ibid., p. 166 -167.

35 John Bugge, Virginitas: An Essay in the History of a Medieval Idea (The Hague: Martinus Nijhoff, 1975): p. 92.

36 Ibid., p. 137.

37 Helen Gardner, “Walter Hilton and the Mystical Tradition in England.” Essays and Studies (1937): 103 -127.

38 Ancrene Riwle, p. 176.

39 Ibid., p. 188 for example. This is a common subject in the treatises on virginity and widowhood.

40 Ibid., p. 183.

41 Ancrene Riwle, p. 185.

42 The translation here is closer to the original than is that of Colledge and Walsh.

43 John Chrysostom, “Homilies on the Minor Pauline Epistles: Homilies on Timothy” in Nicene and Post -Nicene Fathers 13 (New York: Charles Scribner’s Sons, 1914): 436.

44 Ibid, 435.

45 Ancrene Riwle, pp. 28 -29.

46 Ibid., p. 29.

47 Hildegard of Bingen, Scivias, Book 2, Vision 7:11 trans. Mother Columba Hart and Jane Bishop, The Classics of Western Spirituality (New York: Paulist Press, 1990): p. 297. See also the less satisfactory translation by Bruce Hozeksi (Santa Fe NM: Bear & Co., 1986): p. 167.

48 Ibid., 3, 11:18, p. 449; Hozeski, p. 349.

49 Ibid., 2, 7:21, p. 301; Hozeksi, p. 173.

50 Ibid., Declaration, pp. 60 -61; Hozeksi, p. 3.

51 Ibid., p. 59; Hozeski,p. 1.

52 Ibid., II, 1:2, p. 151; Hozeksi, p. 79.

53 Henry Osborne Taylor, The Medieval Mind 1 (Cambridge MA: Harvard University Press. 1966): p. 472.

54 Ibid., p. 459.

55 Ibid., p. 427.

56 Ibid., p. 426.

57 “Triginta Octo Quaestionum,” Patrologia Latina 197, col. 1039.

58 Taylor, p. 476.

59 Ibid., p. 477, referring to Jacques de Vitry, The Life of Marie d’Oignies, Prologue 3, 6; trans. Margot H. King, Peregrina Translations series (Toronto: Peregrina Publishing Co. 1989): pp. 17, 20.

60 Hildegard, Scivias, p. 59; Hozeksi, p. 1.

61 See the new translation, Mechthild von Magdeburg, Flowing Light of the Divinity, trans. Christiane Mesch Galvani; edited with an introduction by Susan Clark, Garland Library of Medieval Literature, series B, vol. 72 (New York: Garland Publishing, 1991).

62 Taylor, p. 486.

63 Ibid., p. 486.

64 Johnson, p. 373.

65 See especially, Barbara Newman, Sister of Wisdom: St. Hildegard’s Theology of the Feminine (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1987) and her more recent “Some Mediæval Theologians and the Sophia Tradition” Downside Review (April 1990): 111 -130 with copious notes.

66 Johnson., p. 280.

67 Carolyn Walker Bynum, Jesus as Mother: Studies in the Spirituality of the High Middle Ages (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1982): p. 234.

68 “Blessed Angela of Foligno” in Medieval Women’s Visionary Literature, ed. Elizabeth A. Petroff (New York: Oxford University Press, 1986): p. 262.

69 Ibid., pp. 262 -263.

70 Ibid., p. 263.

71 Ibid., p. 263.

72 Editor’s note: For an opposing view concerning the enclosure of the Poor Clares, see Sr. Chiara A. Lainati, Sr. Mary Kathleen McGarry and Margot H. King “The Enclosure of Saint Clare” Vox Benedictina 7.3 (July 1990): 253 -280.

73 Petroff, p. 232, quoting John Moorman, A History of the Franciscan Order (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1968): p. 38.

74 Ibid., p. 232.

75 Ibid., p. 242.

76 Paul Lachance, The Spiritual Journey of the Blessed Angela of Foligno According to the Memorial of Frater A. (Rome: Pontificium Athenaeum Antonianum, 1984): p. 105.

77 Ibid., p. 374.

78Simone de Beauvoir, The Second Sex (New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 1953): p. 674.

79 Ibid., p. 674.

80 Ibid., p. 676 -677.

81 Lachance, p. 331.

82 Ibid., p. 93.

83 Ibid., p. 79.

84 Ibid., p. 94.

85 Ibid., p. 349.

86 Ibid., p. 312.

87 In Julian of Norwich, for example.

88 Lachance, p. 315.

89 De Beauvoir, p. 678.

90 Dorothea Soelle, Suffering, trans. R. Kalin (Philadelphia: Fortress Press, 1975): pp. 140 -141.

91 Ibid., p. 87.

92 Ibid., p. 178.

93 Ibid., p. 164.

94 Ibid., p. 157.

95 Carol Christ, Diving Deep and Surfacing (Boston: Beacon Press, 1980): p. 91.

96 Baum, p. 27.

97 Sarah Orne Jewett, “The Tower Poor” in Norton Anthology of Literature by Women, ed. Sandra M. Gilbert and Susan Gubar (New York: W. W. Norton, 1985): p. 988.

98 Ibid., p. 988.

99 René d’Ouince, “Femme” Dictionnaire de Spiritualité 33 (Paris: Beauchesne, 1962): 147 -151.

100 See Constance Fitzgerald, O. C. D., “Impasse and Dark Night” in Living with Apocalypse, ed. Tilden Edwards (New York: Harper and Row, 1984): pp. 93 -116.

101 Baum, p. 25.

102 Ibid., p. 28.

103 Joan Wolski Conn, “Women’s Spirituality: Restriction and Reconstruction” Cross Currents 30 (Fall 1980).

104 Ibid., p. 302.

105 Ibid., p. 306.

106 Myriam Dardenne, “Who is the Integrating Subject? A Response from a Western Point of View” in Blessed Simplicity, ed. Raimundo Pannikar (New York: Seabury Press, 1982): pp. 178 -194.