Notes

1Reprinted from Vox Benedictina 5/4 (1988): 277–287. A version of this paper was delivered at the Twenty-First International Congress on Medieval Studies in Kalamazoo, MI on May 8, 1987. Further discussion of this subject is to be found in the author’s dissertation, "The Popular Preaching of Jacques de Vitry", University of Toronto, PhD, 1993.

2Cf. Thomas of Eccleston, Liber de adventu fratrum minorum, in Angliam, MGH SS. xxviii, 568: Beguine sunt perfectissime et sanctissime religionis, quia vivent propriis laboribus et non onerant exaccionibus mundum.

3Robert de Sorbon, De conscientia, ed. F. Chambon (Paris, 1903), pp. 15-16.

4Caroline Walker Bynum, “The Spirituality of Regular Canons in the Twelfth Century,” in Jesus as Mother: Studies in the Spirituality of the High Middle Ages (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1982), pp. 22-58.

5 Simone Roisin, “L’Efflorescence cistercienne et le courant féminin de piété au XIIIe siècle” Revue d’histoire ecclésiastique 39 (1943): 351-61.

6Ernest W. MacDonnell, The Beguines and Beghards in Medieval Culture, with Special Emphasis on the Belgian Scene, 2nd ed. (New York: Octagon Books, 1969).

7Jacques de Vitry, Vita Mariae Oigniacensis, ed. D. Papebroeck, Acta Sanctorum, June 23 (1867) V: 542-572; trans. Margot H. King, The Life of Marie d’Oignies in Two Lives of Marie d’Oignies, Peregrina Translations series (Toronto: Peregrina Publishing Co., 1993).

8The ‘Historia Occidentalis’ of Jacques de Vitry, ed. John Frederick Hinnebusch (Friburg, Switzerland: The University Press, 1972).

9Lettres de Jacques de Vitry (1160/70-1240), évêque de Saint-Jean-d’Acre,ed. R. B. C. Huygens (Leiden: E. J. Brill, 1960).

10See the collections of Thomas Frederick Crane, The Exempla or Illustrative Stories from the Sermones vulgares of Jacques de Vitry (1890, rpt. New York, 1971); G. Frenken, Die Exempla des Jakob von Vitry: Ein Beitrag zur Geschichte der Erzählungsliteratur des Mittelalters (Munich, 1914); J. Greven, Die Exempla aus den Sermones feriales et communes des Jakob von Vitry (Heidelberg, 1914).

11Jacques de Vitry, Sermones vulgares, partially printed in J. Pitra, Analecta novissima spicilegii Solesmensis, Altera continuatio Vol. 2 (1888, rpt. Farnborough, 1971), pp. 344-46l. His two Sermones ad fratres minores have been published in H. Felder, Spicilegium franciscanum 5 (Rome, 1903): 1-63, while A Sermo ad virgines et iuvenculas has been edited by J. Greven in “Ursprung des Beginenwesens” Historisches Jahrbuch 35 (1914): 43-49.

12Thomas de Cantimpré, Supplementum ad vitam Mariae Oigniacensis, AASS June 23 (Paris and Rome, 1867) V: 572-581; trans Hugh Feiss, Supplement to the Life of Marie d’Oignies in Two Lives of Marie d’Oignies, Peregrina Translations (Toronto: Peregrina Publishing Co., 1993).

13Thomas of Cantimpré, Supplementum I.2, p. 573D. The historicity of Thomas’ account on this point was questioned by Philip Funk, Jakob von Vitry, Leben und Werke (Berlin, 1909), p. 19ff, but upheld by J. Greven, Die Exempla, p. x.

14Thomas de Cantimpré, Vita Lutgardis I.3, ed. J. Pinius in AASS June 16 (1867) IV: 196F; trans. Margot H. King, The Life of Lutgard of Aywieres, Peregrina Translations. Rev. ed. (Toronto: Peregrina Publishing Co., 1991).

15Sermones LXVIII, LXIX ad viduas et continentes; Sermones LXXI, LXXII ad virgines et iuvenculas, listed in index to Pitra, p. 346.

16VMO, Prol. 9, p. 549A.

17Although the dates of his election as canon and as bishop are unknown, he was consecrated bishop in Perugia on 31 July, 1216. Cf. J. F. Hinnebusch, The Historia Occidentalis of Jacques de Vitry, p. 6.

18Huygens, Lettres de Jacques de Vitry I, pp. 71-78; II, pp. 79-97; VI, pp. 123-135.

19Note that Jacques never calls these women by the then still derogatory name of “beguines” but rather mulieres sanctae vulgariter dictae beguinae (“holy women commonly called beguines”).

20VMO Prol. 4, p. 548B: inveniuntur in fide stabiles et in operibus efficaces.

21Ibid., Prol. 4, p. 548A: impudicos et totius religionis inimicos homines, praedictarum mulierum religionem malitiose infamantes.

22 McDonnell, The Beguines and Beghards, p. 6, referring to L.J.M. Philippen, De Begijnhoven (Antwerp, 1918).

23 In his Prologue to the VMO, Jacques dedicates his work to Foulques, alluding to the bishop’s amazement, while in exile from his own city by the heretics, at the great sanctity of the Liégois women, and his desire “that those things which he had seen and heard not perish, but be gathered together” (Prol. 2, p. 547D).

24VMO XI.101, p. 570B: Ita enim dum cantaret vestra retulit peccata, acsi ea in libro coram se videret scripta.

25VMO VIII.79, p. 564F.

26Supp. ad VMO I.2, p. 573D.

27Medieval Women`s Visionary Literature (New York: Oxford University Press, 1986).

28VMO Prol. l, p. 547D: Multi enim incitantur exemplis, qui non moventur praeceptis; Sermones vulgares, Prol. p. 192: Magis enim moventur exterioribus exemplis quam auctoritatibus vel profundis sententiis.

29VMO I.l2, p. 550C: Nec hoc dixero ut excessum commendem, sed ut fervorem ostendam. In iis autem et multis aliis quae privilegio gratiae operata est . . . paucorum privilegia non faciunt legem communem.

30VMO II.22, p. 552A.

31Sermo XXXVII ad fratres ordinis militaris in Pitra, p. 412.

32VMO IV.38, p. 555F.

33Sermo XXXVII ad fratres ordinis militaris in Pitra, p. 409: Dicunt se omnibus renuntiasse in singulari, omnia tamen retinere volunt in generali.

34Sermo XXII ad monachos nigros in Pitra, p. 373: Oportet quod abneget sua, nihil proprium retinendo.

35Sermo XXX ad canonicos regulares in Pitra, p. 387: Mediam quidem viam tenere voluit, ne nimia auctoritate infirmos ab hac religione arceret.

36Sermo XXXIX in Pitra, p. 449.

37Sermo LXII ad artifices mechanicorum artium in Pitra, p. 437: Sed et pauperibus de arte sua subvenire debent artifices mechanici ... ut sutores aliquando gratis et pro Deo reparent pauperum sottolares.

38Sermo LX ad agricolas et vinatores et alios operarios in Pitra, p. 435: Qui igitur in hac intentione laborant, ut poenitentiam a summo sacerdote sibi injunctam faciant, plerumque non minus merentur quam qui tota die in ecciesia cantant, vel de nocte ad matutinas vigilant.

39Sermo LXXII ad virgines et iuvenculas in J. Greven, "Ursprung des Beginenwesens", p. 46: Sit igitur virgo non solum casta corpore, sed et mente ... Magis enim placet Deo castitas mentis quam castitas corporis, licet utraque placeat ei.

40Ibid., p. 47.

41Quoted in Lecoy de la Marche, La chaire française au moyen age. 2nd ed. (Paris, 1886), p. 431 from BN lat. 17509, f. 139.

42Sermo LXXIII ad pueros et adolescentes in Pitra, p. 441: Valde quidem difficile est ut filii a malis parentibus non corrumpantur.

43Supp. ad VMO 12; translation, p. 16-17.

44VMO Prol. 3, p. 547F.

45Sermo LXI ad agricolas et alios operarios in Pitra, p. 437: qui carrucam crucis super humeros tu!it, spiritua!iter intelligi possunt. Ipse enim arat et excolit atque aperit corda hominum docendo.

46VMO IX.86, p. 566C; VII.72, p. 563C.

47Historia Occidentalis 206, ed. Hinnebusch, p. 88.

48Sermo XVIII ad judices et advocatos in Pitra, p. 396.

49Sermo XXIX ad monachas albas et grisias in Pitra, p. 384: Sed et Christus opprobria, derisiones et flagella coram omni populo voluit sustinere, gloriam autem transfigurationis paucis ostendit, et in occulto gloriam resurrectionis suscepit.