1 © Peregrina Publishing Co. 2001. Peregrina Translations Series ISBN 0–920669–64–6.

2 Barbara Newman, Sister of Wisdom: St. Hildegard’s Theology of the Feminine (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1987).

3 For the life of Jutta, see Jutta & Hildegard: The Biographical Sources, translated by Anna Silvas (Turnhout: Brepols, 1999) 46–84.

4 This biographical sketch is largely based on Sabina Flanagan, Hildegard of Bingen: A Visionary Life (London: Routledge, 1990). See also the documents in Jutta & Hildegard, as well as the many recent publications devoted to aspects of the abbess’ life and works. The most recent biography is Régine Pernoud, Hildegard of Bingen: Inspired Conscience of the Twelfth Century, translated by Paul Duggan (New York: Marlowe, 1998).

5 Beverly Mayne Kienzle, “The Prostitute-Preacher: Patterns of Polemic Against Medieval Waldensian Women Preachers” in Women Preachers and Prophets Through Two Millenia of Christianity, edited by Beverly Mayne Kienzle and Pamela J. Walker (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1998) 99–113; Nicole Bériou, “The Right of Women to Give Religious Instruction in the Thirteenth Century,” ibid., 134–145.

6 Frances Oakley, The Political Thought of Pierre d’Ailly: The Voluntarist Tradition (New Haven: Yale University Press, 1964) 316. For Hildegard’s image as Sybil, see Peter Dronke, “Sybilla - Hildegardis” in Hildegard von Bingen, Prophetin durch die Zeiten: Zum 900. Geburtstag, edited by Edeltraud Forster (Freiburg: Herder, 1997) 109–118.

7 The manuscripts are discussed in L. van Acker ”Der Briefwechsel der Heiligen Hildegard von Bingen: Vorbemerkungen zu einer kritischen Edition” Revue bénédictine 98 (1988) 141–168 and 99 (1989) 118–154.

8 Hildegardis Bingensis epistolarium pars prima I–XC, edited by Lieven Van Acker (Turnhout: Brepols, 1991) li–lv treats the exhortation as distinct from the Explanation; but it is, more plausibly, treated as a preface in John Van Enghen, “Abbess: Mother and Teacher,” in Voice of the Living Light: Hildegard of Bingen and Her World, edited by Barbara Newman (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1998) 39–40, 207 n. 52. There is no division of the text in either manuscript copy.

9 Epistolarium, vol. 2, 445–447, Ep. cxcvr. For translations, see Hildegard, Briefwechsel nach den ältesten Handschriften, übersetzt und nach den Quellen erläutert, edited by Adelgundis Führkötter (Salzburg: Otto Müller, 1965) 104–106, 252 n. 11; Hildegard of Bingen’s Book of Divine Works with Letters and Songs, edited by Matthew Fox (Santa Fe: Bear & Co., 1987) 294–297; The Letters of Hildegard of Bingen, translated by Joseph L. Baird and Radd K. Ehrman, vol. 2 (New York: Oxford University Press, 1998) 169–171.

10 Hildegard of Bingen’s Book of Divine Works, 294–297.

11 The Letters of Hildegard of Bingen, translated by Joseph L. Baird and Radd K. Ehrman, vol. 1 (New York: Oxford University Press, 1994) 162–163.

12 For Hildegard’s visit to Disibodenberg ca. 1170, see ibid. 166–172.

13 The style is not dissimilar to that in Hildegard, Explanation of the Rule of Benedict, translated by Hugh Feiss (Toronto: Peregrina Publishing Co., 1990). Moreover, the rubric in the Riesenkodex, at fol. 395rb, reads, “Ad congregationem sororum suarum. R’. b.”

14 John Harper, The Forms and Orders of Western Liturgy from the Tenth to the Eighteenth Century (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1991) 98–100.

15 The Explanation is taken for a part of the Life in Hildegard of Bingen’s Scivias, translated by Bruce Hozeski (Santa Fe: Bear & Co., 1986) xxix. See, however, the fresh hortatory beginning at Migne’s col. 1077d, “Vos autem qui in magistrali doctrina velut luna et stellae audientibus estis . . .” The contemporary note “Explicit” before this new beginning at fol. 399va in the Riesenkodex confirms this as the locus of a break between two distinct works.

16 Newman, Sister of Wisdom 42–88.

17 Hildegard, Scivias, translated by Mother Columba Hart and Jane Bishop (New York: Paulist, 1990) 26–43.

18 Leif Grane, Peter Abelard: Philosophy and Christianity in the Middle Ages, translated by Frederick and Christine Crowley (London: Allen & Unwin, 1970). The misfortunes of Abelard may have caused Hildegard to be cautious in depicting the Trinity according to Madeline Caviness, “Artist: ‘To See, Hear, and Know All at Once’” in Voice of the Living Light 110–124 at 119.

19 Marjorie Reeves, The “Figurae” of Joachim of Fiore (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1972) 192–198, plates 3–5; Delno West and Sandra Zimdars-Swartz, Joachim of Fiore: A Study in Spiritual Perception and History (Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 1983) 41–77, figure II.

20 Scivias 161. Hildegard uses “homo” in its generic sense; see Hildegardis Scivias, edited by Adelgundis Führkötter, Corpus Christianorum, Continuatio mediaevalis (Turnhout: Brepols, 1978) 124 with facing plate. This figure is interpreted as the Son, the “perfect human being” in Constant Mews, “Religious Thinker: ‘A Frail Human Being’ on Fiery Life,” in Voice of the Living Light 52–69 at 58.

21 Scivias 169.

22 Ibid., 162–164.

23 These issues were discussed carefully at the Council of Ferrara-Florence; see Joseph Gill, The Council of Florence (Cambridge [Eng.]: University Press, 1959) 131–269.

24 Hildegard’s anti-Cathar works were widely known in later centuries; see Anne L. Clark, Elisabeth of Schönau: A Twelfth-Century Visionary (Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 1992) 137–145.

25 See, for example, her criticism of the abbots and monks of Disibodenberg in Letters, vol. 1, 158–178.

26 Scivias 96–97.

27 Book of Divine Works 81–148.

28 Letters, vol. 1, 5, 31–39.

29 Correcting “charissima” as “clarissima” from the manuscripts.

30 Reading “divisionis” in the manuscripts for Migne’s “divisione.”

31 See Symbolum “Quicunque vult”, ll. 1–4, in P. Schaff, The Creeds of Christendom, vol. 2 (New York, 1877) 66–70.

32 Ibid., line 6.

33 Ibid., line 5.

34 Ibid., line 8.

35 Ibid., line 9.

36 Ibid., lines 10–11.

37 Ibid., line 12.

38 Ibid., lines 13–15.

39 Ibid., line 16.

40 Ibid., lines 17–18.

41 Ibid., line 19.

42 Ibid., line 20.

43 Symbolum nicaeanum.

44 Symbolum “Quicunque vult”, lines 21–23.

45 Ibid., line 24.

46 Ibid., line 25.

47 Ibid., line 26.

48 Ibid., line 27.

49 Ibid., lines 28–29.

50 Ibid., line 30–31.

51 Ibid., lines 32–38.

52 Ibid., line 39.

53 Ibid., lines 40–42.

54 Ibid., line 43.

55 27. Ibid., line 44.

56 Correcting “videndo” to “vendendo” from the manuscripts.

57 Here the Vienna manuscript provides the rubric: Incipit vita sancti Rupperti confessoris.