Notes

1 © Peregrina Publishing Co. Translation first published 1990. Revised edition published September 2000 with “Forward to the Past: Hildegard of Bingen & Twelfth-Century Monastic Reform” by JoAnn McNamara. Peregrina Translations Series, ISBN 0–920669–15–8.

2 The two most accessible accounts of Hildegard’s life and works are Sabina Flanagan, Hildegard of Bingen (1098–1179): A Visionary Life (New York: Routledge, 1989) and Barbara Newman, Sister of Wisdom (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1987). The rapidly expanding literature on Hildegard is monitored by Werner Lauter, Hildegard-Bibliographie: Weg­weiser zur Hildegard-Literatur and Hilde­gard­­-Bibliographie, Vol. 2: 1970–1982 (Alzey: Der Rhein­hessischen Druck­werk­stätte, 1970, 1984). For literature published after 1984, see Gertrud Jaron Lewis, Bibliographie deutschen Frauen­mystik des Mittel­alters, Bibliographien zur deutschen Literatur des Mittel­alters 10 (Berlin: Erich Schmidt Verlag, 1989): 66–145.

3 Marianna Schrader, “Die Herkunft der heiligen Hildegard” Quell­en und Abhandlungen zur mittelrheinische Kirchen­geschichte 43 (Mainz: Gesellschaft für mittelrheinische Kirchen­­geschichte, 1981).

4Franz Haug, “Hildegardis und Richarda” Studien und Mit­­teillungen zur Geschichte des Benediktinerordens 47 (1929): 597–601; Flanagan, 180–184.

5 For this sketch of Hildegard’s life I rely primarily upon Flanagan, 1–40. Also helpful is Adelgundis Führkötter, “Hildegard von Bingen: Leben und Werk” in Hildegard von Bingen, 1179–1979, ed. Anton Brück (Mainz: Gesellschaft für mittel­rheinische Kirchengeschichte, 1979): 31–54. Peter Dronke’s chapter on Hildegard in his Women Writers of the Middle Ages (New York: Cambridge University Press, 1984) is instructive for many features of Hildegard’s life and personality. For Hildegard’s works, see Marianna Schrader and Adelgundis Führkötter, Die Echtheit des Schrifttums der heiligen Hildegard von Bingen (Köln: Böhlau, 1956).

6 Erika Opelt-Stoevesandt, “Zum Bild der heiligen Hilde­gard von Bingen” in Inter Confessiones: Beiträge zur Förderung des inter­konfessionellen und Interreligiösen Gesprächs, ed. Anne Marie Heiler, Marburger theologische Studien 10 (Marburg: Elwert, 1972): 34–39. Flanagan (pp. 193–213) presents theories regarding the nature of Hildegard’s illness.

7 Wolfgang Seibrich, “Geschichte des Klosters Disiboden­berg” in Hildegard von Bingen, 1179–1979, p. 55; Heinrich Büttner, “Studien zur Geschichte von Disibodenberg” Studien und Mitteil­lungen des Benediktinerordens 52 (1934): 1–46.

8 Scivas, ed. A. Führkötter and A. Carlevaris, Corpus Christianorum, Continuatio Medievalis, vol. 43, 43A (Turn­hout: Brepols, 1978). See Hildegard of Bingen: Scivias, translated by Mother Columba Hart and Jane Bishop, Classics of Western Spirituality (New York: Paulist Press, 1990). A translation of parts of the Scivias is included in Francesca Maria Steele [Barley Dale], The Life and Visions of St. Hildegard (St. Louis: Herder, 1915). Much of this work is translated into English by Bruce Hozeski, Scivias (Santa Fe: Bear and Co., 1986). There is a complete German translation by Maura Böckeler, Wisse die Wege (Salzburg: Otto Müller, 1981). See Frater Henri Boelaars osb, Commentaar op de Miniaturen in Scivias van Hildegardis van Bingen (Doetinchem: Sint Willibrordsabdij, 1984) and Matthew Fox, Illuminations of Hildegard of Bingen (Santa Fe: Bear and Co., 1985).

9 Hildegard von Bingen, Lieder, ed. Pudentiana Barth, M. Im­mac­ul­ata Ritscher and Joseph Schmidt-Görg (Salzburg: Otto Müller, 1969); Der heiligen Hildegard von Bingen, Reigen der Tugenden: Ordo Virtutum; Ein Singspiel, ed. Audrey Ekdahl Davidson (Kalamazoo: Medieval Institute, 1984). See Peter Dronke, Poetic Individuality in the Middle Ages (New York: Oxford University Press, 1970); Maura Böckeler, “Aufbau und Grunddanke des Ordo Virtutum der h. Hildegard” Benediktin­ische Monatschrift 5 (1923): 300–310; “Be­ziehungen des Ordo Virtutum her hl. Hildegard zu ihrem Hauptwerke Scivias” Benediktinische Monatschrift 7 (1925): 25–44, 135–145. Eight of Hildegard’s songs, translated by Kent Kraft, were published in Vox Benedictina 1/3 (1984): 157–161 and 1/4 (1984): 257–263.

10 Liber simplicis medicinae [= Physica] (PL 1117–1352); Liber compositae medicinae [= Causae et Curae], ed. P. Kaiser (Leipzig: Teubner, 1903). These works are well served by German translations: Hildegard von Bingen, Naturkunde, tr. Peter Riethe (Salzburg: Otto Müller, 1980); Heilskunde: Das Buch von den Grund und Wesen und der Heilung der Krankheiten, tr. Heinrich Schipperges (Salzburg: Otto Müller, 1981); Das Buch von den Steinen, tr. Peter Riethe (Salzburg: Otto Müller, 1979). See Irmgard Müller, Die pflanzlichen Heilsmittel bei Hildegard von Bingen (Salzburg: Otto Müller, 1982); and Wighard Strehlow and Gottfried Hertzska, Hildegard of Bingen’s Medicine (Santa Fe: Bear and Co., 1987).

11 Hildegard’s letters have been recently edited: Hildegardis Bingensis Epistolarium, ed. L. van Acker, Corpus Christian­orum, Continuatio Mediaevalis 91–91a (Turnhout: Brepols, 1991, 1993). Previously they were available only in PL 197, cols. 145–382 and J. B. Pitra, Analecta spicilegio solesmensiparata: sanctae Hildegardis opera (Monte Cassino, 1982): 328–582. Some of the letters have been translated into German by Ludwig Clarus [pseud.], (Regensberg: C. J. Mainz, 1954) and by Adelgundis Führkötter, (Salzburg: Otto Müller, 1965). Two letters written by Hildegard and Elisabeth of Schönau have been translated by Kathryn Kerby-Fulton and Dyan Elliott, “Self-Image and the Visionary Role in Two Letters from the Correspondence of Elisabeth of Schönau and Hildegard of Bingen” Vox Benedictina 2/3 1985): 204–223 and reprinted in On Pilgrimage: The Best of Ten Years of Vox Benedictina (Toronto: Peregrina Publishing Co., 1994): 535–547.

12 Ed. Pitra, Analecta, 1–244; German translation, Den Mensch in der Verantwortung: Das Buch der Lebensverdienste, tr. Heinrich Schipperges (Salzburg: Otto Müller, 1972).

13 PL 197, cols. 739–1038. A partial English translation is available in Matthew Fox, ed. Book of Divine Works, With Letters and Songs (Santa Fe: Bear and Co., 1987). Heinrich Schipperges has translated the work into German: Welt und Mensch: Das Buch De Operatione Dei (Salzburg: Otto Müller, 1965). The work is discussed by Adelgundis Führkötter, “Die Gotteswerk” Bene­diktin­ische Monatschrift 29 (1953): 195–204, 306–314.

14 Maria Laetitia Brede, “De Klöster der heiligen Hildegard Rupertsberg und Eibingen” in Hildegard von Bingen, 1179–1797, pp. 77–94.

15 The early vita by Godfrey and Theodoric is in PL 197, cols. 91–130 and has been translated into German by Adel­gundis Führkötter: Das Leben der heiligen Hildegard (Salzburg: Otto Müller, 1980). The Acta inquisitionis from the thirteenth-century canonisation process are edited by P. Bruder in Analecta Bollandiana 2 (1883): 118–129. Guibert of Gembloux’s vita was edited by Pitra in Analecta, pp. 407–415. Editor’s note: The vita has been translated into English by Hugh Feiss, The Life of the Saintly Hildegard by the Monks Gottfried of Disibodenberg & Theodoric of Echternach (Peregrina Publishing Co., 1996 and available on the Monastic Matrix website) and by Anna Silvas, “The Life of Hildegard” in Jutta and Hildegard: The Biographical Sources, Medieval Women: Texts and Contexts (Turnhout: Brepols, 1998) 118-210.

16 Much of Guibert’s correspondence with and about Hilde­gard is published by Pitra, Analecta, pp. 328–404. For a summary of Guibert’s life and connections with Hildegard, see Marianna Schrader, “Wibert von Gembloux: Schicksal eines Mönches im 12. Jahrhundert” Erbe und Auftrag 37 (1961): 381–392.

17 One of the few places in Hildegard’s work where Benedict is mentioned occurs in Scivias, ed. Führkötter, 2.5.20 (pp. 193, 724) which name, in an odd lapse, Hozeski translates as John the Baptist (pp. 111–112). Near the end of Ep. 2 to Pope Eugene iii (PL 179, col. 150c), Hildegard avows that, “Father, in accord with the words of your blessing and according to the Rule of St. Benedict, I remain with my sisters in the cloister of the place shown to me by heaven...”

18 Other information may be obtained from her letters to monastic correspondents: see Flanagan, pp. 161–164.

19 Ed. Pitra, pp. 7–8, no. 1.

20 For references, see Carolyn Walker Bynum, Jesus as Mother (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1982): 32; and Docere Verbo et Exemplo, Harvard Theological Studies 31 (Missoula MT: Scholars Press, 1979): 104, 113 n. 39, 148. J. P. Schmel­zeis, Das Leben und Wirken der heiligen Hildegardis (Freiburg im Breisgau: Herder, 1879), 291, refuses to commit himself on the suggestion that Hunniensis was Hüningen in Alsace. Johannes May, Die heilige Hildegard von Bingen (Kempten: Kösel, 1911) 447, opts for the “Hunsrückkloster Ravengiersburg.” The case for Ravengiers­burg is summarised by M. Pot in an unpublished thesis at the University of Leiden (1987), pp. xxvi–ixl. I wish to thank Fr. Henri Boelaars osb of St. Willibrordsabdij, Slangenburg, for sending me a copy of this thesis.

21 Ferdinand Pauly, Springiersbach, Trierer theologische Studien 13 (Trier: Paulinus, 1962): 16–58; Consuetudines Canonic­orum Regularium Springirsbacenses-Rodenses, ed. Stephan­us Weinfurter, Corpus Christianorum, Continuatio Medievalis 48 (Turnhout: Brepols, 1978).

22 Pitra, 8:495.

23 Thus M. Pot, p. lxix, following Schrader, Echtheit, 160n.

24 My thanks to Bibliotheksoberrat Dr. Podehl for supplying a printout of the text in Wiesbaden, Hessische Landes­bibliothek, MS 2, fols. 421ra–425rb.

25Wiesbaden, Hessische Landesbibliothek MS 2, the so-called Riesenkodex (= W) and Migne’s Patrologia Latina (= M) both read: s(ancto) Roberto in Pingis.

26 M: paradisici; W: paradysiaci.

27 W: vobis; M: nobis.

28 W: provoluti; M: convoluti.

29 W: praedictaeque; M: praedictae.

30 This clause is singular (“quisque...despicit”), but the next one is plural (“ipsi sibi sunt lex”).

31 W: aggravemur; M­: aggravamur.

32 M: Qui quamvis; W: Quae quamvis.

33 W: legalibus; M: regalibus.

34 W: necessaria satageritis; M: necessariae sategeritis.

35 W: Sed; M: Si.

36 W: De regula sancti Benedicti Hil[degardis].

37 W: Lucidissima dona; M: Lucidissima

38 W: ita quod mens ipsius in amore Dei ardebat et in virtutibus ut aurora rutilabat; Pitra (= P): ita quod mens ipsius in amore Dei ardebat, et quod in virtutibus ut aurora rutilabat; M: ita quod mens ipsius in amore Dei rutilabat.

39 P, W: inbecillus sive infirmus sit; M: imbecillis sit.

40 W: O fili; M: fili.

41 W: ut; omitted by M.

42 W, P: loquendi concedatur licentia; M: loquendi gravitatem licentia.

43 W, P: quae oportet; M: quae opus.

44 W: loquendi; M omits.

45W: fere; M omits.

46 W: surgent; M: surgunt.

47 M: cum; W omits.

48 W: vertens; M: vertunt.

49 W: incurret; M: incurreret.

50 W: sentiet; M: sentiret.

51 W: meditationi; M: meditationibus.

52 W: cum necessitas se immerserit; M: cum necessitas se emerserit.

53 W: intendit; M: intendi.

54 W: haberi; M omits.

55 M: oratio; W: oratione.

56 W: possent; M: possunt.

57 M: confusionis ruborem; W: confusionis ruboris.

58 W: in; M omits.

59 W, P: quod non plus indigenti quam non indigenti annonae subministret; M: quod non plus indigenti annonae subminstret.

60 W: faciet; M: facit.

61 M: oratione; W: orationi.

62 W: manducabant; M: manducabunt.

63 W: accepta benedictione; M omits.

64 M: communicabat; W: communicabant.

65 W: Sed; M omits.

66 M: poenitendo humiliatus; W: poenitendo humilitatis.

67 W: commisit; M: permisit.

68 W: dicit; M: dixit.

69 W: officium; M: exhibitionem.

70 W: tunica; M omits.

71 W: sua; M omits.

72 M: sive equestribus sive pedestribus; W: sive in equis sive pedes.

73 W: animum suum; M: animam suam.

74 P, W: interiorum; M: magisteriorum.

75 W: alieno; M: alio.

76 W: in; M omits.

77 W: oratio ultima operis; M: oratio ultimi operis.

78 W: beati; M omits.

79 P notes an addition in the margin of a manuscript: In hoc commemorationem absentium facientes. Cum autem redissent, in eadem oratione dominica illis reversis dicebant: ‘Sed libera nos a malo’ et famulos tuos fratres nostros de via revertentes. Amen.

80 P, W: nec nimis remissa, nec nimis constricta; M: nec nimis constricta.

81 W: non; M omits.

82 W: ea; M omits.

83 It also uses “pariter” alone (53:4; 72:12) and expressions with “communis,” but not “omnes in commune.”

84 See Christel Meier, “Vergessen, Erinnern, Gedächtnis im Gott-Mensch-Bezug” in Verbum et Signum [Festschrift F. Ohly], ed. Hans Fromm et al. (Munich: Fink, 1975): 1: 156–187.

85 Whether this is to be taken to refer to manual work is not clear. Hildegard does not comment on rb 48, and so passes up a chance to discuss monastic work. She does not write about work very often, but it is possible to develop some elements of a theology of work from her writings. See H. Boelaars, “Hilde­gardis en de Arbeid” Benedictijns Tijdschrift 20 (1959): 83–91.

86 Peter of Celle, Selected Works, tr. Hugh Feiss (Kalamazoo: Cistercian Publications, 1987): 14–15, 28–29, 63–130. Cf. Bynum, Docere.

87Scivias, prol., 1,1, ed Führkötter and Carlevaris, p. 3, lines 9–11; p. 8, lines 41–43; Liber divinorum operum, prol. (PL 197, col. 7411ab); Ep. 77, ed. Pitra, Analecta 8:539; Ep. 51 (PL 197, col. 260b).

88 Barbara Newman, “Hildegard of Bingen: Visions and Validation” Church History 54 (1985): 163–175. Her final comment – “To account for the exceptional claims of a woman like Hildegard, we need to consider both the dynamics of mystical illumination and its refraction through the cultural and psychological prism of gender” – could serve as the thesis for Flanagan’s study. See also Newman, Sister, pp. 34–41; Bernhard Gertz, “Tönend vom lebendigen Licht: Hildegard von Bingen und das Problem der Prophetie in der Kirche” Erbe und Auftrag 49 (1973): 171–189; Friedhelm Jürgensmeier, “Hildegard ‘Prophetissa Teutonica’” in Hildegard von Bingen, 1179–1979, pp. 273–293.

89 Führkötter, Scivias, pp. xiv–xviii.

90 See Adalbert de Vogüé’s comments in the introductory volume to his edition of the Dialogues, Source Chrétiennes 251 (Paris: Cerf, 1978): 100–103.

91 De Vogüé, pp. 135–138. Dialogues 2.8.8 declares: “vir iste spiritu iustorum omnium plenus fuit.” This phrase was used in the fifth antiphon for Lauds in the monastic office for the Feast of St. Benedict (March 21): “Vir Domini Benedictus omnium justorum spiritu plenus fuit.”

92 Hildegard, Heilkunde, ed. Schipperges, pp. 275–290.

93 Ruth M. Walker-Moskop, “Health and Cosmic Continuity: Hildegard of Bingen’s Unique Concerns” Mystics Quarterly 11 (1985): 19–25.

94 E.g., Liber div. op. 2.1–18 (PL 197, cols. 751–764); Scivias, ed. Führkötter, 1.3.1–6 (pp. 40–44). See Hans Liebeschütz, Das allegörische Weltbild der heiligen Hildegard von Bingen, Studien der Bibliothek Warburg 16 (Leipzig: Teubner, 1930): 23, 107 n. 2, 122.

95 Generally Hildegard recommended drinking wine or beer, rather than water. If water is to be taken, it should be boiled first: Heilkunde, ed. Schipperges, pp. 191–192.

96 See the index by Pitra, Analecta 8:612; Scivias, ed. Führ­kötter, p. 808.

97 See RB 1980: The Rule of Benedict, ed. Timothy Fry (Collegeville: Liturgical Press, 1981): 145–147, 156–157.

98 Hildegard, Heilkunde, ed. Schipperges, pp. 152–161, 276–278; see Heinrich Schipperges, Die Benediktiner in der Medizin des frühen Mittelalters, Erfurter theologische Schriften 7 (Leip­zig: St. Benno, 1964): 20–22, 48–54.

99 RB 1980, p. 250 n. 446 (with extensive citations from the literature).

100 Bibliorum sacrorum cum glossa ordinaria...et postilla Nicholai 5 (Venice, 1603): 323–324; Graduale sacrosanctae romanae ecclesiae (Paris: Desclée, 1952).

101 For Hildegard’s Eucharistic theology, see Willibrord Lampen, “Sint-Hildegard en de h. Eucharistie” Benedictijns Tijdschrift 20 (1959): 92–100; Ep. 47 (PL 197, col. 22bc); Gerhard Müller, “Schau des Geheimnisses: Die Eucharistie in der prophetischen Theologie Hildegards von Bingen” Internationale katholische Zeitschrift Communio 8 (1979): 530–542. Hildegard speaks ill of those who are too ill to receive the Eucharist for fear of vomiting it up. She describes a ceremony of “spiritual communion” for these people in which the elements are placed on the sick person’s head and heart while an appropriate prayer is said.

102 For a comparison of Benedict’s Office with that of his predecessors, see RB 1980, pp. 379–414.

103 RB 1980, pp. 412–413. On Hildegard’s prayer, see Adelgundis Führkötter, “Wie Hildegard von Bingen betete” Geist und Leben 52 (1979): 324–335.

104 See RB 1980, pp. 420–426.

105 Flanagan, pp. 184–190.

106 Confessions 3.3.6; 7.9.13, ed. Verheijen, CCSL 27 (Turnhout: Brepols, 1981): p. 29, line 17; p. 101, line 5. Ep. 22.6, ed. Goldbacher, CSEL 34 (Vienna: Tempsky, 1895): p. 59, line 5.

107 Although wrong, this etymology has a distinguished history. See Gregory the Great In Euangelia Homiliae 43, 2 (PL 76): “quod agitur typo superbiae.” Most Christian writers of the later Middle Ages used Isidore as the basis for their interpretation of this word: “Typhus vero, quae se ab aqua inflat. Vnde etiam ambitiosorum et sibi placentum ominum tumor typhus dicitur” (Etymologiae 17.9. 101, ed. W. M. Lindsay [Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1957]).

108 RB 1980, pp. 237, 411. “Mistum” or “mixtum”: diluted wine or a drink in which bits of bread are mixed. In his note to RB 38.10 E. Manning opts for the former interpretation: Règle de Saint Benoît, tr. H. Rochais (Paris: Desclée de Brouwer, 1980): 106, while Georg Holzherr thinks it meant diluted wine: Die Benediktsregel (Zurich: Benziger, 1982): 213.

109 Cf. Ex 7. Cassian believes there is a close connection between eating and sexual desire, but does not single out meat: Conférences 22.3, ed. E. Pichéry, Sources chrétiennes 64 (Paris: Cerf, 1959): 116–119. In his edition of the Rule, A. de Vogüé discusses abstinence from meat in early monasticism: La Règle de Saint Benoît, Sources chrétiennes 186 (Paris: Cerf, 1971): 6, 1103–1107. H. Musurillo gives further references in his “The Problem of Ascetical Fasting in the Greek Patristic Writers” Traditio 12 (1956): 1–64.

110 In Scivias 2.6.82, 84–87 (Führkötter, pp. 295–297), Hildegard speaks eloquently of confessing one’s sins to a priest or to others or even to the elements if a priest is not available. Elsewhere she speaks of confession with reference to the responsibility of clergy in binding and loosing (ibid. 2.6.93–100, pp. 300–304).

111 See the entries for “reverentia” in the index to Scivias, ed. Führkötter, p. 847.

112 In Liber vitae meritorum 5.2.3, ed Pitra, pp. 184–185, “reverentia” opposes “scurrrilitas.”

113 See Ex 31 for the translation of habitus as clothing or habit.

114 See Scivias 3.10.13 and 26, ed. Führkötter, pp.560, 567–568; Liber vitae meritorum 4.14, ed. Pitra, pp. 153–154; “Song in Honour of St. Ursula and Companions:” Carmina 65, ed. Pietra, p. 456. The song in honour of St. Ursula has been translated by Peter Dronke in “Hildegard of Bingen as Poetess and Dramatist” in Poetic Individuality (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1970): 161–163; by Barbara Newman in Sister of Wisdom: St. Hildegard’s Theology of the Feminine (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1987): 225–226; and by Kent Kraft in “Hildegard of Bingen: Three Songs” Vox Benedictina 1/3 (1984): 160–161.

115 Ep. 51: Ad griseos monachos, PL 197, cols. 262b–263a.

116 See A. Steiger, “Was sagt uns St. Hildegard über unsere Kukulle?” Cistercienser-Chronik 41 (1929): 211–231.

117  St. Bernard’s defence in this matter is outlined in his On Precept and Dispensation (Treatises I, Cistercian Fathers series 1 (Shannon: Irish University Press, 1970): 138–144.

118 By thus narrowing the issue, Hildegard avoids some difficult questions: e.g., whether monks may transfer to a stricter monastery in order to keep the Rule more faithfully.

119 Compare Scivias 3.3.6, ed. Führkötter, p. 379, lines 290–298; Liber divinorum operum 1.4.78 (PL 197, col. 860b).