1Grégoire le Grand, Dialogues II, 33-34; texte critique et notes par Adalbert de Vogüé, traduction par Paul Antin, Sources Chrétiennes 260 (Paris: Cerf, 1979): pp. 230-235.

2 See Carole Straw, Gregory the Great: Perfection in Imperfection (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1988): p. 104.

3 See Grégoire de Nysse: Vie de Sainte Macrine; introd., texte critique, trad., notes et index par Pierre Maraval, Sources Chrétiennes 178 (Paris: Cerf, 1971); translated, with introduction and notes, by Kevin Corrigan, The Life of Saint Macrina, by Gregory, Bishop of Nyssa, Peregrina Translations series 10 (1987; rpt. Toronto: Peregrina Publishing Co., 1989). According to Dudden, the sisters of Anthony, Pachomius, Ambrose, Augustine, Caesarius and Romanus, as well as the mother of Theodore and the wife of Ammon were said to have devoted themselves to the religious life (F. Homes Dudden, Gregory the Great: His Place in History and Thought, vol. 2 (London: Longmans Green, 1905): p. 168, n. 1.

4 RB 1980: The Rule of St. Benedict in Latin and English, with notes; Editor Timothy Fry (Collegeville MN: The Liturgical Press, 1981): p. 92.

5 Helen M. Luke, Woman Earth and Spirit: The Feminine in Symbol and Myth (New York: Crossroad, 1989): pp. 11-12.

6 According to tradition, Benedict and Scholastica were twins.

7 Legend has it that after Benedict had settled at Monte Cassino, Scholastica moved to Plombariola, about five miles south of her brother’s monastery, but the location is, in fact, unknown. Since Gregory says elsewhere that Benedict governed women as well as men, it has been inferred that Scholastica was abbess of this convent and that she was under his direction.

8 Aldhelmus, De laude virginum 39 (PL 89, cols. 273-274; Johannes Mabillon, Acta sanctorum Ordinis S. Benedicti I (Matisconenses: Fratres Protet Typographi, 1935) p. 42.

9 T. Prosp. Marginengius, Pia quaedam Poemata (Rome, 1590): pp. 256-258; Mabillon, Acta sanctorum Ordinis S. Benedicti I, pp. 42-44.

10 Bedae Opera VII (Basle, 1563): pp. 488-489; A. Wion, Lignum vitae III (Venice, 1595): p. 47; Mabillon, Acta sanctorum Ordinis S. Benedicti I, pp. 44-45.

11 “Castalian leaders”: Castalia was the proper name of a spring on Mount Parnassus which was sacred to the Muses; hence “castalian,” pertaining to the Muses.

12 Virginal: “the book containing the Office of the Blessed Virgin Mary”: Albert Blaise, Lexicon latinitatis medii aevi, Corpus Christianorum, Continuatio Mediaeualis (Turnout: Brepols, 1986) in reference to Th. Rymer, Foedera, conventiones, litterae inter reges anglia et alios quosvis imperatores, reges … IX (Hagae Comities, 1739-1745): p. 276. See also Oratio 14 aug., Sacramentarium Gregorianum 147, 1, quoted by Albert Blaise, Le vocabulaire latin des principaux thèmes liturgiques (Turnhout: Brepols, 1966): p. 347.

13 These trophies refer to the fruits of monastic asceticism; see, for example, RB, Chapters 4, 72, 19 et passim.