S. Katharina (S. Katharine)
Community ID
Alternate Names
Katherinenkloster; S. Katharina in Augsburg; S. Katherine's convent in Augsburg; S. Catharina
Medieval Location
The convent lay in the southwest portion of the city in the "Ulrichs-quarter."
Corporate Status
S. Katharine
Date Founded
1230 (circa)
Date Terminated
Religious Order
Foundation Information

In approximately 1230 a lay sisterhood formed a community just outside the city of Augsburg. This small community followed the Augustinian rule but adopted the Domincan rule under the direction of Pope Innocent IV in 1246 (Uhl, 59-60). According to Hörmann, the convent was originally founded in Wörishofe (Hörmann, 343). On August 5, 1251 Bishop Hartmann von Dillingen of Augsburg granted the community land in the parish of S. Moritz, where the nuns built a new cloister and church.

Notable Heads

The first documented prioress is named Gertrud, who appears in a document of sale from June 6, 1273. The second prioress was Agnes Sparerin, who presumably stemmed from the nobility of Langenmantel. The third prioress mentioned is Chrisitina, who appears in 1293. The next mention of a prioress occurs in 1297 with prioress Tuta or Guta. The prioress following Guta was Haedwig; then Elisabeth. Following Elisabeth was Gertrud, although it is unclear in which year she entered the position or for how long she presided as prioress. She was followed by Mechthild, whose rule lasted for three years. Her successor was Anna von Eggenthal, who appears in the documents of 1325 as prioress. Gertrud appears again after Anna (probably the same person as was prioress in 1321) in a document granting lands in Wörishofen to Heinrich Sinthmann and his four sisters in vassalage (Hörmann, 307). After three years, Anna von Rohrbach became the new prioress, then Gertrud became prioress for the third time. Prioress Anna von Pruggheim follows her; she was followed by Adelheid, who served as prioress for two years and appears in only one document of purchase in 1350. She was followed by Prioress Agnes, and then Adelheid appears again as prioress. In 1357, Adelheid Portner of Augsburg, a freind of countess Agnes, appears in the documents as prioress; she held this office several times, finally laying aside the office in 1369. She was followed by Agnes Rieder as prioress, who served in this office for four years and was then followed by Adelheid Portner again. She was followed by Elisabeth von Argon, a from Augsburg. She was followed by Prioress "Anna." In 1390 Elzbeth or Gisela appeared as the prioress; following her was Anna Dachs. Anna Dachs was followed by Anna Langenmantel, a daughter of an Augsburg patrician. There follows a gap in documentation; the next prioress is recorded as Katharina Langenmantel in 1424, although it is likely she became prioress prior to this date. She died in 1446. The following prioress was Anna Harscher (d. April 26, 1462). The next prioress was Afra Langenmantel. In 1444 the prioress was Anna Ilsung. She was followed by Helena Kastner as prioress, then Magdalena Ravensberger. Magdalena freely resigned her position and was followed by Helena Kastner again as prioress, who appears in 1464. She died on May 25, 1470 and was followed by Magdalena again. The next prioress was Anna Endorfer of Augsburg. She was followed by Elisabetha Haraus or Garaus on July 22, 1462. Elisabetha died on March 17, 1487 and was followed by Elisabeth of Egen or Argon. She was followed by Prioress Anna Walter; her sister oversaw the sexton's house (?).

Population Counts

In 1294 it was decided that no more than 60 people should be accepted within the convent of S. Katharina. On June 5, 1445 Brother Martialis Auribele de Avenione, a professor of theology and master of the Dominican order decreed that the convent should not admit more than 47 nuns (Hörmann, 317). In the late fifteenth century there were 50 nuns.

Priveleges & Papal Exemptions

In 1487 Innocent VIII granted the nun's the privilege of making a spiritual pilgrimage within their convent with the use of paintings specially commissioned by the nuns for this purpose. According to the papal bull, the nuns were to pray at three designated places in the convent, for which they would be granted the same number of papal indulgences received by pilgrims in Rome (Cuneo, 25). Because it belonged to the Dominican order, the convent was also free from duties and laws other than those imposed on it by the order (Uhl, 60-62).

Other Ecclesiastical Relations

Saint Katherine's enjoyed significan freedom from ecclesiastical and secular authority. The nuns elected their own prioress and were not placed under the jurisdiction of the bishop (Cuneo, 23).


S. Katherine's became the target of reform as early as 1357. Subsequent attempts at reform followed in 1441 and 1485. According to a government document from 1441, the nuns defended themselves against workers hired by the city council to raise the convent walls and fasten the window gratings, thereby imposing strict claustration upon the community. The nuns evidently poked at the workers with roasting spits so energetically that the workers abandoned their efforts! (Cuneo, 23-24).


In 1348-1349 King Karl IV transferred the rights of patronage over the community to the city of Augsburg; this was later confirmed by Cardinal Peter in 1456. Saint Katherine's wealth and status was protected by various papal and royal privileges that accrued to the convent from the thirteenth century forward (Cuneo, 23).

Secular Political Affiliations

On March 26, 1349 King Karl IV took the convent and its retainers into his protection and commissioned Friedrich, duke of Teck, and the municipal authorities of Augsburg to protect the convent in his name (Hörmann, 309). The nuns remained largely independent of city control by appointing their own personnel and administrators, through whom they managed their affairs (Cuneo, 23). On July 28, 1395 Bishop Burkart took S. Katherina into his protection in return receiving 20 fl. each year (Hörmann, 314). In 1434 King Sigmund confirmed all the privileges and freedoms bestowed on the convent by his predecessors.

Social Characteristics

According to Cuneo, the convent was an exclusive institution. A statistical study of the entries in the conent's necrology demonstrates that the nuns came from the wealthiest patrician and merchant families of Augsburg (Cuneo, 23). Cuneo concludes that the sisters of Saint Katherine's were a group of economically and socially powerful women, whose power was actively and repeatedly contested by secular and religious authorities under the guise of reform (Cuneo, 24).

Relative Wealth

By the late fifteenth century, S. Katharine's was one of the wealthiest of the city's seven convents. S. Katherine's wealth and status was protected by various papal and royal privileges that had accrued to the convent since the thirteenth century. Despite Dominican rules, the nuns at S. Katherine's were allowed possession and control of personal items, properties, inheritances, gifts, and other sources of income (Cuneo, 23). In the late fourteenth century, despite the vast acquisitions of the convent, the income was not sufficient to cover the expenses of the nuns.


According to Cuneo, the nuns managed landholdings and properites and gained income from the manufacture of textiles. A document dated June 6, 1273 records the sale of a half of a farm in Eringen by the Prioress Gertrud with the support of the nuns of the community to Berthold Rucher in Kaufering, who in turn handed over his ownership of the Altar of S. Katharina (Hörmann, 301). On July 26, 1273 Ulrich, duke of Helfenstein, granted the sisters freedom from feudal duties (Lehnsfreiheit) for certain goods in Rumelsried, which had belonged to his vassal Heinrich (Hörmann, 301). On February 20, 1274 Bishop Hartmann gave the sisters fields. On February 28, 1277 the nuns received a third of the property in Buch from "Schwigger and Heinrich von Mindelberch" (Hörmann, 302). On October 7, 1278 Heinrich Schrötele, judge of the episcopal court, sold the convent one farm and other properties in Thierdorf. On June 5, 1279 the sisters purchased a farm from Ulrich and Arnold von Wöllenburg in the village of Bergen with the approval of Bishop Hartmann and the vicar of the cathedral. On August 6, 1279 Bishop Hartmann approved the sale of a farm belonging to his chuch in Bobingen by his vassals Heinrich and Grimold von Sevelt against a deposit of property in Ehingen (Hörmann, 302). On September 20, 1279 Bishop Hartmann permitted the convent to purchase from the sisters of the convent of Hörbruck the tithes from four fields. On March 12, 1280 S. Katharine's purchased from Heinrich and Friedrich von Freudertshofen property in Bobingen with permission from Bishop Hartmann. On December 29, 1282 King Rudolph von Habsburg freed a farm in Gablingen and one in Bobingen, which belonged to the convent, from their feudal duties (Hörmann, 302). On February 28, 1283 the convent purchased fields in Augsburg from the cathedral chapter. On August 18, 1283 Marquard von Kemnat handed over his property rights in a half of a farm in Bergen for one in Horgau, which Sebastian, a patrician from Augsburg gave to his daughter and he convent (Hörmann, 303). On December 6, 1283 the convnet purchased a farm in Inningen from Joh. Schongauer and on January 30, 1285 the convent received freedom from feudal dues for a farm in Inningen for a yearly payment to the cathedral chapter (Hörmann, 303). On may 13, 1286 Heinrich Schongauer gave the "Mayrhof" and a timberyard(?)in Holzhausen to the convent on condition that his daughter, a nun in the convnet, would be given 10 Shillings yearly from these holdings after his death (Hörmann, 303). In 1289 Heinrich von Mindelberch granted the convnent as compensation a farm in Mindelau and on June 18, 1290 he sold them a farm in Nassen. On January 29, 1291 Heinrich von Wolfberg relinquished his claims to the Mayerhof in Rumeltsried and a property in Kleinechsried. On Febraury 28, 1293 the Prioress Christina and the convent purchased a (lift?) in Eringen from Heinrich von Zeigershofen. On August 21, 1293 Wernhard von Hurenbach gave his daughter Sophie, a nun, property in Niederrammingen for her lifelong use and decreed that after her death the sisters Margaretha and Mechthildis should have the property for their use and after their death, it would fall to the convent itself (Hörmann, 303). In 1296 Margarethe, the prioress, and the sister purchased from Marquard, provost of Westerkitzigkofen, a farm in Dillishausen, which he had given to Michael, Hermann and Engelschalk von Rohrbach. In 1297, the prioress Tuta or Guta sold a yearly tithe of 13 Shillings to the chaplain of S. Katharina, Heinrich. In 1298 the convent purchased a farm from Sophie von Schwangau in Suntheim and a farm in Thierdorf from the brothers Menhofer. On March 12, 1298 Count Albrecht von Merstetten granted the convent farm properties in Thierdorf, which belonged by feudal tenure to the cathedral chapter, and the cathedral chapter freed this property from its feudal duties in exchange for a half of the yearly tithe (Hörmann, 304). On October 15, 1300 Ulrich von Wöllenburg allowed his overseer to sell fields and farmland to the convent. On October 16, 1300 the convent purchased a farm in Lammerdingen from Sifrid von Wabern. On May 29, 1301 Bishop Walfard permitted the Count Conrad to exchange some fields along the path to Gögginger with the convent (Hörmann, 304). Haedwig and the convent purchased from Heinrich Ruch three properties in Erringen on March 17, 1303. In the same year the convent purchased a farm in Nassenbeuren from Conrad von Scheppach. On February 22, 1304 the convent purchased farm property in Rommelsried. on April 1, the Bishop Degenhart and others granted the farms in Erringen freedom from their feudal duties (Hörmann, 305). On October 21, 1301 Berthold Hurlocher sold a farm in Bobingen, in vassalage to the cathedral chapter, to the convent; the sale was confrimed on January 18, 1305 by the provost of the cathedral chapter, Egeno, and the deacon, Rudolf von Hurnheim. On February 18, 1306 the convent purchased a property in Thierdorf from Conrad Zollner. On February 4, 1309, the Count Conrad, with persmission of his overlord, the cathedral deacon, sold the convent two farm properties in Thierdorf and a field before the door of Göggingen (Hörmann, 305). On June 25, 1311 the convent purchased farm properties in Holzhausen from Heinrich Schongauer. On February 14, 1312 Hermann and Gottfried von Wellenburg granted a farm in Göggingen to the convent. On July 16, 1317 the convent purchased a farm in Zusamm-Altheim from Heinrich Portner for 65 Marks and 30 Shillings and another farm for 70 Marks, less 33 pennies (Hörmann, 306). In December 1318 the convent purchsed two farms in Grosskitzighofen from the convent Steingaden. On May 31, 1319 the sisters purchased a farm in Suntheim from the convent in Munich for 23 Marks. On November 24 of the same year Johannes Langenmantel granted the convent some farm property and an (income?) in Inningen, on account of his sister Anna, a nun in the convent (Hörmann, 306). In 1322 the convent purchaed a property in Haimeneck and another from Heinrich, provost of Erringen. On May 26, 1322? Johann von Rosenstein and the convent of Erringen sold a house in the Catharinen-street to the convent. On January 8, 1323 Heinrich of Zusammecker, a religious of St. Georg (with the permission of his provost) sold to his sisters Margaretha and Anna, who lived in the convent, a house, farm and storeroom; the convent also promissed that it would grant 6 Marks yearly for the Elsbeth (Hörmann, 307). On March 1, 1323 Heinrich Wizinger sold a farm in Gögginen to Agnes, countess von Burgau, a nun of the community. On March 30, he sold a a farm in Hiltefingen to the convent. On May 4, 1323 the sisters purchased a farm in Inningen from Heinrich Herbort. The convent also purchased properties in Gammenried von Conrad Masser von Dirlewang in the same year. On March 21, 1325 the prioress and the convennt forged a confraternity with two sisters, Adelheid and "Hille" from the convent of Heligen Grab to perform vigils and Masses and therefore would grant 10 Shillings from the income in Inningen and 3 Shilling from properties in Muehlhausen for wine (Hörmann, 307). In 1326 the convent received a farm from Wernher Hug in Obermeitingen. On March 24, 1333 the convent purchased from Wernher Drexl a farm and forest areas? in Hiltenfingen for approximately 90 Marks. On April 30, 1333 the convent purchased property in Unter-Meitingen from Conrad Rehlinger, and a farm in Hiltenfingen and another in Göggingen from Heinrich Wissinger. On July 3, 1333 Conrad Porner gave the convent a garden before the door of Holy Cross, from which Adelheind, a nun, would receive a yearly tithe (Hörmann, 308). On November 21, 1333 the convent purchased tithes from a field near Augsburg. On October 2, 1337 the convent purchased a farm in Zusamaltheim for 70 Marks from Heinrich Portner. On July 13, 1338 Medingen sold a farm in Steinheim to the convent for approximately 130 Marks and 19 Shillings. On December 13, 1341 the convent purchased four properties in Lamerdingen from a certain Elisabeth for approximately 20 Marks and 10 Shillings. On March 12, 1344 the convent again purchased a small property in Michelmat from Medingen. On May 7, 1344 the convent purchased a property in Ziemetshausen from Heinrich Herbot, and on July 21, 1344 the convent made an agreement with Agnes von Laugingen for the use of a farm in Untermeitingen for the sister Agnes (Hörmann, 309). On August 31, 1344 the convent purchased some fields between Augsburg and Göggingen from Heinrich Portner for approximately 274 Marks. On November 19 of the same year the convent received nine more fields from Heinrich Portner. On January 26, 1345 the convent purchased a property in Modelshausen and four farms in Laugna from Conrad von Lauterbach for 28 Marks and 10 pennies. On November 23, 1346 the convent purchased three farms in Lugna from Luipold Negelin and on December 15 of the same year the convent sold a farm in Gablingen to the nuns Adelheid Gerutin and Adelheid Portner (Hörmann, 309). On July 22, 1351 Prioress Agens and the convent purchased a tithe in Göggingen from Gertraud Otterin. Circa 1353 margravine Agnes bequeathed to the convent after her death: two farms in Göggingen and Schwabeck in return for a Vigil and Mass to be held for her memorial yearly, she also provided for the wine and fish for the convent (on this occassion?); she provided further money for the celebration of memorials for her parents and relatives and for the king and queen of Hungary; she provided an annual allotment of 10 Shillings on Easter; she bestowed from a farm in Schwabeck for the provision of an eternal light for her grave rye, and other goods. She further appointed two nuns named Adelheid to serve as caretakers of her memorial, who should be replaced after their deaths by two more appointed by the prioress and convent. The use of a farm in Hiltenfingen fell to the two nun-caretakers and fell to the convent after their deaths. The nun-caretakers also recieved her cell in the dormitory and her chamber in the infirmary, which she had built at her own expense, as their dwellings and for their own use. She left her "livingroom" to the prioress. The chamber belonging to the caretakers should also be shared with any relative of Agnes' within the third degree who decided to enter the convent (Hörmann, 310-311). On July 14, 1355 the convent purchased two properties in Ober and Untermeitingen from Ulrich Kartinchen and on November 18 the convent purchased a farm in Hurlach from Gisela Welserin. On March 29, 1356, the convent purchased four farms in Orlfingen from Walter Rott. On June 12, 1357 the convnet received several properties from Berthold Riederer in Altenbaindt and afterwards purchased from him a farm in Eisenbrechtshofen. In 1359 the convent continued to acquire lands: a farm in Thierdorf and four farms in Weissingen from Hartmann Onsorg. On July 3, 1363 Prioress Adelheid decreed four new memorial-days in exchange for the acquisition of farm property in Nordendorf. The four memorials were for: Guta von Lauingen and her relative Elisabeth, Hans Argau and his wife, Katharina Rieder and her sister Anna of Lauingen, and one for her sister Anna and her parents (Hörmann, 312). On May 10, 1365 the convent purchased a fram from Karl Gollenhofer in Erringen and another in Bobingen from Adelheid Bursnerin in November. On December 17, 1369 the convent purchased farm property in Knörringen from Conrad von Knör; on November 29, 1271 it purchased a property in Kleinkitzgkofen from Conrad von Wabern and on December 4 of the same year, it received a garden in Untermeitingen from Conrad Neumayr. On February 6, 1376 the convent recieved a farm in Grosskitzighofen and a garden in Schwabmenchingen. Under Pioress Elisabeth von Argon the convent purchased a farm in Göggingen on May 30, 1377. On April 19, 1379, it purchased farm property in Orlfing and a mill in Pfaffenhausen and another property in Schönenach (Hörmann, 313). On August 19, 1382 the convent purchased two farms in Schwabmuenchen from Anna Renzin. The convent also purchased property in Wörishofen, a mill in Gamenried and another property in Schonspach in 1382. Under prioress Anna Dach, Wilhelm left the convent a pasture and garden in Wertach. On November 29, 1400 the convent received a garden in the parish of S. Stephans from Jos Heldenberger (Hörmann, 314). In 1402 the convent purchased property and two farms in Obermeitingen from Hans Algerzhofer. On July 15, 1406 the convent purchased a property in Ustersbach from Peter Vögelin, and in 1410 Anna Werishoerin established an eternal light and added a farm in Werishofen as well. In 1411 the convnet purchased a farm from Lorenz Rieder. On October 16, 1415 the convnet purchased a farm in Weissingen from Wernher Rosshaupter von Luagingen. On October 27, 1416 the convent obtained freedom from feudal duties for a farm in Wörishofen from Duke Ulrich von Teck and purchased from Heinrich Schellenbold a farm (Hörmann, 315). On November 21, 1437 the convent purchased a farm property in Schwabmuenchen from Hartmann Ehinger of Ulm through its provost Stephan Hagenor. Under Prioress Afra the convnet purchased a farm in Schwabmuenchen from Ulrich Kinzelmann for approximately 1900 fl. Circa 1440 the Augsburg patrician Hans Vögelin bestowed a farm property and the advocacy of a fiefin Pliensprach for the two nuns Lucia and Afra Langenmantel, who were his sisters (Hörmann, 317). On August 28, 1454 the convent purchased a farm in Ropeltshausen from Georg von Ellerbach for 520 fl. and on February 5, 1457 it purchased a farm in Heudaorf from Wilhelm Schenk (Hörmann, 318). On October 9, 1461 the convent purchased a property from the abbot and convent of the Holy Cross in Donaruwörth. On December 20, 1466 the convent purchased a farm property in Dillishausen from the abbot and convent of Irsee fro 275 Marks (Hörmann, 318). On January 20, 1486 the convent purchased a farm in Dillishausen from Erhard Eberhard. Prioress Elisabeth died on June 12, 1490 and bequeathed to the convent a perpetual tithe and other goods (Hörmann, 319). Under prioress Walter the convent purchased on October 4, 1490 pasture before the "red gate" from Jakob Rehlingen. Under prioress Welser and her predecessor Anna Walter (late fifteenth century), the convent purchased large tracts of land in and around Augsburg (Cuneo, 23). The convent was continually enriched through the bequests of its nuns, who were allowed to own their own property and goods. For example in 1495 the death of the nun Anna Riedler left the convent with a yearly tithe of 4 fl. in Ulm and a pasture in Lechhausen. On December 4, 1502 a memorial was established for Ulrich Walter, a citizen of Augsburg, his wife Barbara, Anna Walter (the prioresss) and Maria Walter, a nun at S. Katharina, with a choral Mass and vigil. In return, Walter gave the covent a green silk robe and two choir robes and a painting (Hörmann, 319).


Income was derived from the convent's land, tithes, and taxes. Various large gifts in the years following the convent's establishment ensured the community a wide economic basis, which was increased through purchases of land both within and outside of Augsburg (Uhl, 60).

Other Economic Activities

In 1293 the convent forged an agreement with the community of Göggingen for the rebuilding and repair of the Wertach-bridge and the yearly fee from it (Hörmann, 303).


On December 10, 1466 the episcopal court decreed that the convent must pay 14 fl. yearly to the priest of Wörishofen, which had been contested (Hörmann, 318). In 1479 a dispute arose between S. Katharina and Stern convent over a piece of property, the result of which the disputed land was judged to belong to both and similar pasture was recognized for each (Hörmann, 318). On March 29, 1481 a notarial document was produced for the mill in Diedorf which was also disputed. Prioress Elisabetha Haraus reached a settlement with the community of Biburg over a fishery and with the convent of Rottenbuch over a forest area in Mindelau (Hörmann, 318-319).

Early Documents

See Property/Assets

Art & Artifacts

The convent is most famous for a series of six panel paintings, which were commissioned by nuns of the convent between 1499 and 1504 from some of the city's most prominent artists. The paintings were for the convent's new chapter hall. The paintings depict the seven basilicas of Rome and were used by the nuns as part of a spiritual pilgrimage for which they obtained papal indulgences (see papal exemption field). The paintings depict important women from sacred history as well as important pilgrimage churches. According to Cuneo, representations of women are unusual in Renaissance art; this displays the direct intervention of the donors (23). According to Cuneo, "During a time when the convent experienced external pressures to reform, asserting the crucial role tht women played in sacred history became an empowering act of resistance and self-affirmation" (21). The five nuns who commissioned the paintings were Dorothea Rehlinger, Anna Reidler, Barbara Reidler, Helena Rephonin, and Veronica Welser. The first painting in the cycle depicts the basilica of Santa Maria Maggiore, dedicated to the Virgin Mary; it was painted by Hans Holbein the Elder, commissioned by Dorothea Rehlinger, and was finished in 1499. The second painting of the cycle was painted by Hans Burgkmair and commissioned by Anna Reidler; it depicts the basilica of San Pietro. Barbara Riedler, perhaps the sister of Anna, commissioned Burgkmair to paint the third work in the cycle, the basilica of San Giovanni in Laterano, which was completed in 1502 (Cuneo, 21). The fourth painting, depicting the basilicas of San Lorenzo and San Sebastiano, was completed by an unknown artist in 1502. The last two paintings in the cycle, by Burgkmair and Holbein, were commissioned by Veronica Welser in 1504, the year she was elected prioress of the community. These panels depict the basilica of Santa Croce. The saints featured in the basilica cycle were significant to the nuns of Saint Katherine's. They included either saints related to the Dominican order and the convent, such as Mary Magdalene, the Virgin, and Saint Catheine, or patron saints of the donors, i.e. Helen, Dorothy, and Ursula. The other women depicted, Drusiana, Plantilla, and Thecla, were followers of saints John and Paul. According to Cuneo, "Their representation in Renaissance art is unusual and probably indicates the direct intervention of the donors" (23). In light of the convent's high social standing, economic power, and repeated conflicts with secular and religious authorities over the matter of reform, Cuneo interprets the convent's basilica cycle as "an articulation of female community and as a justification of the Saint Katherine community in particular" (24).

Architecture & Archaeology

New Building projects were undertaken under the prioress Anna Walter. The Gothic church still exists. S. Katherine, Augsburg


On November 12, 1503 Prioress Anna received several relics for the church from Florian Waldruf von Waldenstein. She spent much of her own money on objects for the convent, leaving behind at her death paraments and furniture.

Miscellaneous Information

The nuns of this community rejected absolute claustration. Despite their papal and royal protection, however, the community became the target of reform as early as 1357. Attempts at reform were undertaken by both religious and secular institutions in 1441 and 1485. According to a government document from 1441, the nuns defended themselves against workers hired by the city council to raise the convent walls and fasten window gratings. The nuns poked at the workers with roasting spits until the workers abandoned their efforts! (Cuneo, 23-4). Ironically, the Catholic nuns later were all but bodily dragged from behind the walls they had previously fought to keep permeable. Due to the nuns' determined resistence, the convent was not dissolved until 1802 (Cuneo, 24).

June Mecham
Contributors Notes

The nuns conducted business affairs, mostly concerned with the management of their landholdings and properties and the manufacture of textiles.

Date Started
Date Finished